Journey to a Black Hole – Uncovering a Mystery

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Since time immemorial humankind has looked to the stars the universe has always been a source of fascination and of mystery how was the cosmos born what else might the universe contain and where do we come from we are surrounded by an intangible infinity a universe in which the earth is merely a grain of sand on the shore of an ocean but we are unraveling more and more of the secrets of the universe which surround us and that includes black holes bottomless pits like the jewels of Hell which devour all material that comes close to them even light has no chance of escaping from them but how does a black hole form are there any near us and can they pose a threat to us welcome to space time featuring astronaut and scientist Ulrich Volta and an expert on surprises the universe has in store for us a look at the universe presents us with pictures of fascinating and confusing beauty landscapes of light and gas and Stardust formed by cosmic wind and radiation our telescopes are discovering more and more wonders of the universe they are looking far out into space and thus far back into the past believe me I’m we live in a universe that is truly fantastic and today we’re going to take a journey to a fantastic place in the center of our Milky Way where an enormous black hole lurks we will also encounter other fantastic phenomenon the Kinlan but be warned it could cost us our lives the center of our galaxy is marked by a super-heavy black hole an astronomical object with an inconceivable gravitational pull nothing can escape from it [Music] vassman and you believe that in our Milky Way the galaxy in which we live there’s a black hole a black hole that really does devour everything oh that’s precisely the case and now is this then how do we actually know that because fortunately and we have space telescopes out there Tom Tillis Cooper and the picture you see here for instance was taken by Chandra an x-ray telescope and if you look very closely at the center of our Milky Way you can see individual stars they are the bright dots and they move as shrines of this movement appears to be chaotic but it isn’t these stars move on precisely defined paths on known as Kepler orbits the men astronomers have studied these orbits for many years and discovered that they are in fact ellipses these are bond the blue lines you can see here in DZ Azim in fact you can see lots of blue lines and this means that a vast number of stars are moving here and if we focus on just one star let’s take this one here you can see that at this point it makes a very fast upwards movement this tells us that at this specific point there must be a giant mass and this mass can be calculated in this case it’s 2.8 million solar masses and precisely that is our black hole because its mass is so dense there’s nothing that can escape from this black hole not even light Amanda no light can be emitted from this region obviously we can’t see anything but that’s why a black hole is black yaayy the characteristics of a black hole are fairly dependent on its size whether it’s one solar mass or millions of solar masses what often happens is this somewhere there’s a white dwarf and as it’s known with another large star circling it home this star pushes some of its mass down onto the white dwarf when this mass reaches the white dwarf at first it orbits the star emitting a huge amount of light the Megane each tap but ultimately it falls into the white dwarf it’s like a small droplet causing a large barrel to explode because this white dwarf really does detonate in a massive explosion leaving behind a black hole ball that can be seen from the outside is what we call a planetary nebula and it looks beautiful wouldn’t a shoo-in us so how big are black holes well all black holes are formed by large stars which explode that’s why there are several million black holes in our Milky Way’s iname but as we just saw those located exactly at the center can gorge themselves so to speak hole masses entire stars fall into these black holes causing them to swell to huge objects of up to four million solar masses and that’s why we have such a huge one at the center of our Milky Way indica stinky nematodes are my Strasse the black hole at the centre of our galaxy is known as Sagittarius a star of enormous size it devours everything while remaining totally invisible a black hole is a point in space which contains so much material that the force of gravity is incredibly powerful so powerful that not even light can escape from it and kumkum only a few decades ago black holes were a purely theoretical concept the notion that if I cannot see something I can’t really prove its existence isn’t quite true when we observe the stars at the center of our galaxy we are seeing stars that are moving around one area the way the planets move around the Sun in our solar system in this case the focal point they are circling cannot be seen from the movement of the stars however it’s possible to calculate the size of the mass at the center of their orbit astronomers keenest eyes are in outer space like the Hubble Space Telescope black holes cannot be observed directly but they exert a distinct influence on their environment astronomers and astrophysicists can monitor and evaluate these effects let’s give us a fussiness black holes differ considerably as of summer roughly as heavy as our Sun from may be ten times heavier these black holes are formed at the end of a star’s life the room we call a supernova explosion and the star releases a huge amount of material which we see as an explosion than the center a black hole is left which usually has a mass of five or ten Suns Sun mass and Hayden Sun must not assume the corpse of a star infinitely small compressed to nothing but there is also another totally different type of black hole from one that is found at the center of galaxies like our own Milky Way and he says these black holes way millions or even billions of solar masses the black hole at the center of our Milky Way is a special cosmic feature but it is not the product of chance and from other scientists today even suspect if there is a supermassive black hole at the center of every galaxy which possibly even stabilizes the galaxy appreciat black holes stir our imagination and that of Hollywood producers the journey to a black hole is a departure to one of the frontiers of our knowledge because even as we have seen a black hole exerts a gigantic evolved how can that be and a sign to answer that question we have to think a little bit like Einstein 19 imagine that our universe is a two dimensional space like a tabletop on which we place a rubber man I knew shy of next we put a huge mass on this rubber mat in the form of a large ball it represents the Sun design the force of gravity from this mass causes the space to bend dean space here is represented by the rubber mat which as you see has expanded on bending it if we now bring the earth into this curved space this is the earth the gravitational force is nothing other than the perceived curvature of space in the direction of the funnel indistinct us each Mouse sketch it in the highest this is the gravitation and as you see this is the increase in the curvature but the earth doesn’t simply topple in then imagine there’s a marble rolling on the tabletop and its initial movement say is in this direction and unmoving T see the marble then moves off Giza in a circle on this curved tabletop in Kies and at each point on its orbit the marble feels gravitational forces pulling it in words those are these gravitational forces that now point inwards yeah thus we have movement which is nothing other than movement in this curved space building by the way it’s not only space that’s curved along with space-time is also curved that’s why we talk of curved or bent space-time in reality things are even more complicated space isn’t two-dimensional it’s three-dimensional you have to imagine this space-time compression not just on one plane but in all directions so the earth can orbit the Suns not just in one direction but in every possible direction and so and so let’s now imagine that the Sun isn’t the Sun black hole as in other words millions of solar masses it’s then clear of course that the curvature of space is massive the are the curvature of space and thus the gravitational force is so massive that it points directly downwards so if I now introduce a mass here this mass will plunge straight in and it has no chance whatsoever of getting out again and this force this curvature of space is so enormous that a photon which I’m going to draw right now this being the photon sees this force long can and so why can a photon a light particles see this force a photon has energy according to e equals mc-squared and she does an amethyst corresponds to a mass and it is precisely this equivalent mass that is affected by the force of gravity in other words the curvature of space even a photon will orbit this black hole at some time or other and also fall into it and photons and light particles fall into the black hole because of the curvature of space and and that’s why a black hole is pitch black it is the most compact form of matter we could not imagine anything more compact Sagittarius a star was discovered in 1974 with the help of a radio telescope but it was not until the early 90s after many years of observation that astronomers succeeded in proving the existence of a black hole at the center of our Milky Way I draw conclusions about the black hole by observing matter that is located around it for to see what it’s doing there that’s what kind of orbits exist there on I can then measure how heavy the black hole is at the center of us in 2011 astronomers discovered a gas cloud moving towards the black hole at the center of our Milky Way they named the cloud g2 scientists waited tensely to see whether the cloud would be devoured but it survived the flyby in 2014 feminine Cosmo we discovered a gas cloud and you can see wonderfully well how this object Falls around the black hole however it isn’t a store which is compact aghast but a ragged gas cloud what we notice is that this gas cloud is stretched by the black hole now these are tidal forces exactly the same forces that produce the tides on earth the answer here we have a differential force the effect is more powerful at the front than at the back this results in objects being pulled apart black holes our gravitational monsters which suck in everything around them nevertheless the threat to us humans is more than minut we live in a backyard of the cosmos far away from the nearest black hole there are not really any black holes in our vicinity so they don’t pose any major threat to earth gazing into space is one of humankind’s primeval experiences cosmic distances are almost inconceivable for us our black hole is at the center of the Milky Way 26,000 light-years away and thousands and thousands of years away in a current day spacecraft just think of it 26,000 light years even if we could travel at ten percent of the speed of light it would take us two hundred and sixty thousand years to get there but even if we could travel through space at the full speed of light the journey would still take two thousand six hundred years the time spanned from the early Celts to our age of information over 100 generations would have to be born and died on a spaceship traveling at the speed of light before it finally reached its destination and if we traveled at only a fraction of the speed of light we find ourselves on a virtually endless journey through black nothingness such a journey would be relatively unspectacular for the first let’s say 25 thousand 999 light years it would just be boring but near the black hole there things would suddenly start to get exciting under near the event horizon of course the passage of time would change here space-time as it is known changes considerably someone looking from the outside would get the feeling that they were never going to reach the event horizon in other words to get close to the black hole Hong Kong the most distant object in space humans have visited so far is the moon a tiny step into the vastness of the universe so could a human being ever bridged the distance to a black hole [Music] Guillen found on the distance from the earth to the black hole in other words to the center of our Milky Way is around 30,000 lightyears that’s high so from here light would take 30,000 years to get there so coming we know of no rocket technology that could manage that in a reasonable time 4:15 side shuffling but imagine we did have a rocket that could travel at the speed of light you couldn’t how long would it take easy well we’d need 30,000 years to get there so come on and now comes a really important point in a famous publication in 1905 Feinstein showed that when we travel at almost the speed of light space and time expand it’s just like with gravitation in other words I wouldn’t need 30,000 years to get to the black hole to come for me and as I think time would be shorter like maybe just 10 or 20 years so I could fly to the black hole within my lifetime isn’t that great when you’d stand now imagine that I would fly back against us so I’d need another 20 years and imagine I had a twin brother I think he knows when I left Earth he was maybe 20 years old the same as me I would get back after 40 years so now I’m 60 and what has my twin brother experienced and I think about it thirty thousand years there thirty thousand back according to his time that’s 60 thousand years he would be long dead so what has really happened is that I have made a journey to the Earth’s future to come out that’s the significance of Einstein’s special theory of relativity it allows us to travel in time into the future so any interstellar journey would not only be a journey through space but also through time humans on their way to the center of the galaxy would be spacetime travelers however Albert Einstein’s theory of relativity does not permit a journey back into the past quasars are among the brightest objects in the universe and every quasar has a super-heavy black hole at its center when Frances loss when we look for a black hole we’re looking for something with a huge appetite is something that devours a great deal when material tumbles into a black hole it heats up so much that it shines very brightly and more brilliantly in fact than an entire galaxy these objects are called quasars from quasi stellar or almost star shape Fe the antenna seen through a telescope they are very bright start like Centers of galaxies and galaxies Andy demons as ahead isn’t like lighthouses quasars mark fixed points in the endlessness of space cuz eyes and quasars are galaxies cores that shine very brightly so they are specific and important points in the universe system to pull their money Valmet essentially I’d almost describe them as beacons for us they appear as no more than dots because they’re so far away that we could not fly to them basically though a quasar is something that marks a certain spot is that possible and it can actually serve as a form of orientation come on field woods when you discover a quasar you have found a black hole but there are some black holes that do not emit any radiation so they remain totally invisible and in one case it depends on whether the black hole is getting something to eat at the moment you’re looking for it and demand for other ways to search for the force of gravity isn’t that of course is the more systematic approach the force of gravity is always present to these facts so when you see the force of gravity of a black hole you have definitely identified one but especially when a black hole is devouring matter it leaves clear traces which scientists can identify and evaluate you have a stellar black holes next to it for example a red giant what it in red entire from out of the red giant is drawn into the black hole creating what we call x-ray flares so this hot material falls into the black hole and in a very short time hours or even minutes it becomes incredibly bright and when that can be seen 1999 launch of the space shuttle Columbia onboard the x-ray telescope Chandra a time machine the telescope looks deep into the universe’s past it registers the radiation which quasars emitted over ten billion years ago and observes the behavior of black holes Chandra is still providing pictures of stars that explode and collapse to become black holes [Music] in 2012 NASA placed another eye in space in the form of x-ray telescope new star with the definition ten times greater than that of Chandra new star is designed to search space for sources of x-rays and in doing so make a systematic inventory of the black holes in space we are living in a golden age of astronomy scientists find themselves on a seemingly never-ending voyage of discovery to the frontiers of our universe and beyond it is also a journey to the frontiers of our knowledge in our search for the blueprint of the cosmos and we are gaining new insights at shorter and shorter intervals but there are still no answers to the question of what happens inside a black hole it is a mystery that has been puzzling physicists for decades we want to satisfy our curiosity and see with our own eyes so we are now setting out for the black hole at the center of our Milky Way it is a mind game the distance doesn’t matter nor does the duration of our journey our explorers are following the gravitational lines in space but what awaits them at the edge of the matter gulping abyss and what phenomena will they encounter on their journey through the universe [Music] and there’s fungus part one really exciting question is what would really happen if you flew in a spaceship almost at the speed of light and looked out with the Stars still look like spheres after all the stars are spherical objects as are the planets would they still appear as spheres the surprising answer is yes because of the theory of relativity if the theory of relativity did not exist when we flash past the star what we saw would look like a cigar we would see elongated shapes but because of the theory of relativity if we looked out we would only see spheres if we pass our Sun at almost the speed of light we would see a beautiful sphere so our dear Lord perhaps prepared us for space travel because the theory of relativity ensures that spheres stay spheres does problem is literally the only problem of course is that when we move at high speed our field of vision becomes steadily restricted suddenly light seems to come solely from the front and the faster we fly the narrower our field of vision gets this can also be demonstrated with simulators in the end I can only see what’s in front of me that’s so to speak is the point when I’m traveling at almost the speed of light I can only look forward and see the world basically as it comes toward me I’m fond of mr. Khan in science fiction films space travelers not only feel acceleration they see it as well they stop these star wars animations are fantastic yanti they show stars all becoming lines or dashes because the spaceships fly at warp speed but I don’t think that is the way it is there would not be any direct view on a flight to our galaxy because the spaceship would have to be massively armored then there would also be the problem of everything being subject to Doppler displacement in other words the light which is emitted and is perhaps optical infrared light suddenly shifts into the x-ray and gamma range then I would not be able to see anything but either because I would very quickly be dead or I would be blocking my own view in order to protect myself from the gamma radiation in his general theory of relativity Albert Einstein said that gravitation bends space thus even rays of light are diverted light is bent around a body the body just has to be heavy enough cause of large masses in particular that means black holes can bend rays that’s hard to get our heads around how can race be bent but it really is possible and there are some truly bizarre examples of that the most famous being the Hubble smiley smiley trauma says let’s take a look at it what we see here is a Hubble photograph you can make out the various dots and each of these dots is an entire galaxy indeed so each dot contains around a hundred billion stars and here you can see a face two eyes I’ve seen two galaxies not a nose galaxy is this here this rings kind isn’t a galaxy we’ll see in a second what it is and out here this circle is the outline of the face into the decisive point in this picture however is this little dot which you can see in the middle it’s a fairly large galaxy but one that is a really long way off and it has a truly gigantic mass him even further away behind the Aleksey is a star light from it travels past this galaxy and is bent to such a degree that we see these circles here these this effect is known as gravitational lensing effect to get a better understanding of this we need to look at the entire picture from the side now the same situation but zoomed in on this little galaxy which now appears as a large galaxy is een is you can see it here and at the center is a black hole and indicated by this cross lights mass so what happens well in the background we have this start yes we as observers are roughly here so we are looking across the black hole and the galaxies towards the stars what can we see well the star is emitting its light oh but this light is not passing the galaxy in a straight line but it’s been towards our eye in every direction in other words if I take another direction around here it again bends towards our eyes you now have to imagine that three dimensionally what do our eyes do what are they seeing we think that the ray of light is coming in a straight line from this point or conversely from this point one decent point but since in fact all rays are travelling circularly around the galaxy it looks as if there’s a ring around this entire galaxy galaxy as described in the relativity theory light moves on bent space-time the phenomenon that becomes visible is known as an Einstein ring kuntum could this effect also be used to see isolated black holes even after all we know that there must be millions of them in our Milky Way basically the answer is yes then there would be no bright point of light at this spot just a bare black hole and we would only see a ring like this that would be a clear indication of an isolated black hole the closer we get to the black hole at the center of our galaxy the greater the effect of its gravitation on us we enter a world of bent space and curve time while our spaceship is moving towards the event horizon for us on board time is passing quite normally gravitation is having the same effect on us as it has on our environment but the time in which we are moving is expanding more and more seconds become years and then centuries we don’t see the black hole but we feel it since light is never emitted from a black hole I would never see it I would only ever feel the black hole through the gravitation which it exerts on me in that respect I wouldn’t have anything particular to fear I would of course always expect to see a star here after all I am measuring gravitation flying towards something which exerts a force of gravity but as simply as black as the rest of space Verdun for mutti same if we could really see a black hole we would presumably see a large black shadow happen and the best portrayal of that was in a film which appeared in cinemas some time ago in interstellar a large black hole was shown in the film interstellar thesis in facts and a large black hole audiences saw was created by scientists they determined what it would look like I know it wasn’t left to the imagination of some director to design it physicists applied the theory of relativity in time you see a shadow and around this shadow there was a relatively bright ring of light that’s so to speak is the light which is deflected around the shadow and then reaches you the black hole bends the space around it which acts like a lens so what you get is this lens effect unless he does it is disaffected them aliens in black holes take our powers of imagination to their limits but physics can explain every phenomenon up to the event horizon every black hole exerts gravitational force it’s the same with our Sun bends if we flew to the Sun and instead of moving around it on an orbit but I’ll simply switched off the engine and stationed ourselves in front of the Sun the Sun would grab hold of us think we would hurtle into it the same with the black hole if I place myself in front of a black hole I switch off the engine my speed would be zero then it would pull me in and at some time or other I would be behind the event horizon and be gone with the Sun there was no event horizon they would just maybe be a small flame as I burned up but in the end there would be no difference radiation exits a black hole at the speed of light and is invisible to the naked eye but if I had x-ray eyes or radio eyes things would be totally different suddenly everything would be totally bright emission from close to a black hole I wouldn’t probably be able to observe radio jets and radio notes being emitted kernston in orbit around a black hole we would encounter another phenomenon let’s assume I’m at the distance of a photon sphere from a black hole and fly around it if I now emitted light forwards it would travel around the black hole in a closed orbit but if I might would see the back of my own head the whole time that will be really amusing that’s a losses that is only one of the bizarre effects that await us in the intangible depths of the universe he isn’t in the meantime we’ve entered orbit around this sphere and what do we see well when we look out we see that the light is coming towards us but we would also see the masses falling into this black hole everything has become blueish this is known as a Doppler displacement or a blue shift because the incident light gains energy and this shifts it into the blue range so things out there look rather unreal so if we’re starting to fly very quickly and are approaching the speed of light but we are still in a stable orbit in other words we don’t need to do anything we’re flying in a circle around this black hole but now we have to watch out and when we approach to within 30 million kilometers our orbit becomes unstable closer and we would automatically fly into the black hole if we can only keep ourselves out by thrusting against the gravitational pull twenty million kilometers out and we would be powerless to stop ourselves flying into the black hole and never to be seen again one that’s not the case with life even at a distance of 20 million kilometers light can still escape from the black holes that’s why we can still see something but when the photons the particles of light have reached the event horizon there’s nothing they can do either they orbit the black hole and when they get closer fall into it and that’s the reason why with this event horizon no photon can get out we can no longer see anything and that’s why we have this black sphere in front of us for every black hole there is a point from which there is no way back it is the boundary at which nothingness begins dive the only distance from a black hole that can be defined is the event horizon the curtain so to speak for up to that point the world is in order and beyond that no one can say because a black hole conceals all information from me anyone who fell in could shout for all they were worth if they were behind the event horizon I wouldn’t hear them there’s a hint America so it’s lost in space and time if you find yourself behind the event horizon you are gone completely you can’t see from the outside and you can’t look out no one can say what happens to the matter which is sucked in by black holes as a physicist you would say that is gone the information you had beforehand is also gone ot and for the stories physicists because that should not be the case it contravenes have certain fundamental laws of physics something must have happened to the matter but our theories do not tell us what the Tyrians arguments I manifested personal the event horizon a border zone at which it would seem all life ends life always means that there is structure which preserves itself perhaps in the final analysis gravity is after all it’s one huge grinder which destroys every structure towards and gravity is more powerful in a black hole than all other forces so I’d regard the chances of any form of life existing in a black hole as extremely slim that getting one of the biggest hindrances to traveling through the universe are the astronomical distances involved but Albert Einstein’s theory of relativity could provide a solution it offers an albeit theoretical shortcut if black holes bends space and time couldn’t that fact be used to create a wormhole what is a wormhole exactly let’s take a look let’s imagine a three-dimensional space portrayed once again as a flat surface we place a large mass in it you can see that here a black hole for the time being we can forget about the lower part then we again have this funnel so here spaces bent as far as the black hole and yeah now Einstein says the following can happen if this black hole is nearby and on the other side of a universe which is also three-dimensional we have here a flat surface this black hole would also create a curvature a funnel on the other side so we would have a black hole and on the other side a white hole why black and white well the black side would cause all matter like a spaceship to fall in here I’m a white hole we do exactly the opposite it would spit this mass out again in other words the mass would fall in here and come out again on the other side so it’s clear that through a wormhole a spaceship could end up in a totally different part of the universe Einstein himself said that wormholes could exist the question is yes do they really unfortunately we have not seen any sign of this anywhere in the universe another totally different question is would it be at all possible to fly through these things could they be used as a shortcut to get from one part of space to another the simple answer is no they couldn’t that would never work why not we’ll imagine a spaceship flying into this black space the hole would go zip because it’s dynamically unstable the lower part would separate from the upper part leaving only the black hole the spaceship would be trapped and that would be that instant des Vosges but a wormhole would be an easy way of saving a lot of distance and time a wormhole would be a shortcut through this curved space imagine if you have an apple and a worm crawling over the skin as it moves from the top of the Apple to the bottom along the outer surface at some point – rather the worm will arrive of course it would get there much faster if it could go through the middle of the Apple because none cold this is the shortcut the wormwood the surface of the Apple however is two-dimensional and the war would have too much its way through the third dimension take things of dimension higher which is not something our brain is equipped for unfortunately it’s only designed for three-dimensional space with this roughly is how we can envisage a wormhole it’s a shortcut in three-dimensional space theoretically the general theory of relativity says this is possible but wormholes would only be stable if there were a certain form of matter which we have not yet found evidence of only then with the openings of these wormholes so to speak really be stable and no one has found proof of these anywhere in the universe so experimental evidence that these wormholes exists is still lacking if they did that of course would be fantastic Buster’s the gigantic distances in the universe could be covered very quickly consequently Hollywood also makes use of wormholes to make travel through our universe possible and in search of the meaning of the origin of life physics doesn’t come into it [Music] I mean if the journey into a wormhole could prove pretty dangerous you need a very stable spaceship because in this case two space-time would have to be bent open to an extreme degree of being they’re bending space-time involves powerful gravitational forces over quite a short distance and they could tear me apart I need a very robust spaceship but wormholes are just a theory of astrophysics at present nothing like that exists but we can imagine indeed such ideas are acceptable and kind but at no point in the universe is there any indication that wormholes exist the James Webb Space Telescope will be a new celestial spy it will hover above the earth at a distance of one and a half million kilometers the telescope is the most expensive measuring instrument ever built a cooperation of NASA ISA the European Space Agency and the Canadian aerospace authority comprised of 18 segments its main reflector has a diameter of six and a half meters a shield the size of a tennis court will protect the telescope from the sun’s rays on an orbit 1.5 million kilometres from the earth the telescope will take the deepest look so far into the endless reaches of the universe only in space will the telescope unfold to its full size the James Webb telescope is designed to peer into the very origins of our universe studying the genesis of stars and galaxies and determining the role played in the universe by black holes but it is with an observatory on earth that scientists have opened a new window on space through it they observed the collision of two black holes the two monsters of gravitation one with a mass of 29 Suns the other with one of 36 Suns cannoned into each other and fused to form a single black hole the energy that was released shook space-time for the first time physicists were able to measure the vibrations from such a collision and what a collision it was too large black holes came close to each other and in the end they fused these were two very heavy objects which were also moving very fast a lot of gravitational waves were generated and these gravitational waves were registered on earth Albert Einstein had predicted the existence of such gravitational waves but it was only a century later that science was able to prove their existence it was on September the 14th 2015 that gravitational waves were detected by his special Observatory in the United States even someone’s willing to imagine for example that a gravitational wave was going to hit us space would start to oscillate and with the out of lasers I could then measure how the distance between two places has changed that’s very difficult because this effect is incredibly minut we’re talking about first being able to measure a distance of 10 to the power of 22 meters over several kilometers the gravitational waves cross the distance of 1.3 billion light-years before they reached us distortions in the structure of space and time gravitational wave astronomy promises a totally new view of the universe gravitation waves are the Herald’s of gravity it is rather like me throwing a stone into a pond then I see waves on the water and that is how you can imagine gravitational waves and all fosston their discovery was a sensation the importance is totally fundamental it is just as Einstein predicted in the past their existence could only be proved indirectly and in a direct proof was lacking so from a fundamental there’s not just an astronomical point of view and also from the point of view of physics it is highly important that this has been discovered [Music] these observations will also help us to better understand black holes into self-defense Malaysia confronting galaxies it’s the black holes located at the Centers of galaxies regulate how much matter comes in and the degree to which stars in a galaxy conform this also means that a black hole is something of a feedback for stellar Genesis in galaxies in other words black holes could regulate the formation of stars in the universe proof of gravity waves is another stepping stone along the path to knowledge up to now only light and radio waves could be observed and most of the cosmos doesn’t emit any radiation at all yet gravity has an effect everywhere it shows that our theories are correct but Einstein was actually right does that the laws of nature which we have must be valid dustiest remember Sagittarius a star the supermassive black hole at the center of our Milky Way is about 26,000 light-years away but scientists suspect that numerous smaller black holes are far closer to us meanwhile our earth quietly continues to trace its orbit in the solar system here on earth we’ve no reason to be afraid I think that what is a leech to take place in the LHC that tiny black holes will be created so it shouldn’t be switched on it’s absolute nonsense the LHC is the most powerful particle accelerator in the world here protons are fired at one another at the speed of light when the machine was started up for the first time in 2008 skeptics feared that the end of the world was nigh today the accelerator runs at twice the original speed and still hasn’t generated any black holes what takes place in the LHC happens every second in the atmosphere and if black holes really were to form in the LHC that would also happen all the time in the atmosphere but we’re still here it seems if black holes could be created with the LHC we wouldn’t need to travel to the center of our galaxy is it actually worth making a journey to the black hole at the center of our Milky Way and if you ask me I would do it at once and for two reasons if we flew there we would experience Einstein in reality we would see gravitational lensing effect as we would perhaps travel past a black hole or a wormhole but we’d have to be careful not to fly into it otherwise we would never get out alive imagine having a black hole in front of you being the first human to see a real black hole what a thrill that would be but I wouldn’t fly into it otherwise I too would be a goner I’d first fly around the black hole twice maybe and then returned straight to earth and now comes the second important point by the time I got back to earth 60 thousand years would have passed on our planet I would have made a genuine time journey into the future of humankind what could be better than that Skiba showing us mysterious black holes we are discovering more and more of them in our universe some of their fascinating secrets can even be deciphered but as always here two sciences explorers are only just setting out.

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